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Type 2 diabetes

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Type 2 diabetes

Certainly! Type 2 diabetes is a prevalent and chronic metabolic condition characterized by high levels of blood sugar (glucose) in the body. It occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn’t produce enough insulin to maintain normal glucose levels.

Understanding Type 2 Diabetes

Insulin and Glucose Regulation

Insulin, produced by the pancreas, helps regulate glucose in the bloodstream. It allows cells to absorb glucose for energy. In type 2 diabetes, the body’s cells become less responsive to insulin, leading to elevated blood sugar levels.

Risk Factors

Several factors contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes:

  • Genetics: Family history and genetics play a significant role.
  • Lifestyle: Sedentary lifestyle, poor diet (high in processed foods and sugar), and obesity increase the risk.
  • Age and Ethnicity: People over 45 and certain ethnic groups (such as African Americans, Hispanic/Latino Americans, and Native Americans) are more prone.


  • Increased Thirst and Urination: Excess glucose in the blood leads to increased urination, causing dehydration and increased thirst.
  • Fatigue: Cells are unable to get enough glucose for energy, leading to fatigue and weakness.
  • Blurry Vision: High blood sugar levels can affect the eyes, causing blurry vision.
  • Slow Healing: Wounds and sores take longer to heal due to poor circulation and immune system function.

Diagnosis and Treatment


  • Blood Tests: Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and A1C test diagnose diabetes by measuring blood sugar levels.


  • Lifestyle Changes: Healthy diet, regular exercise, and weight management are key.
  • Medications: Some individuals may need oral medications or insulin therapy to control blood sugar.
  • Monitoring: Regular monitoring of blood sugar levels helps in managing the condition.


Long-term complications of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes include:

  • Cardiovascular Issues: Increased risk of heart disease, stroke, and high blood pressure.
  • Neuropathy: Nerve damage leading to pain, numbness, or tingling in the hands and feet.
  • Kidney Damage: Diabetes can damage the kidneys, leading to kidney failure.
  • Vision Problems: Retinopathy can cause vision impairment and blindness.
  • Foot Problems: Nerve damage and poor circulation increase the risk of foot ulcers and infections.


Lifestyle Modifications

  • Healthy Diet: Focus on whole foods, fruits, vegetables, lean proteins, and whole grains.
  • Regular Exercise: Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate exercise most days of the week.
  • Weight Management: Maintain a healthy weight to reduce the risk of developing diabetes.


Type 2 diabetes is a serious health condition that requires lifelong management. However, with proper lifestyle changes, medication when necessary, and regular monitoring, individuals can effectively manage their blood sugar levels, reduce complications, and lead fulfilling lives. Education, early detection, and proactive management are crucial in combating this prevalent chronic condition.

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